There are some great injury prevention programmes established for specific sports or high level sports, such as

FIFA 11+ program:

The FIFA official web source for everything related to the FIFA 11+ Injury prevention programme. Read the background and the scientific papers of the FIFA 11+, watch the FIFA 11+ Exercises, scroll through the FIFA 11+ Manual, download the FIFA 11+ Material and much more.

The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre:

An international research group showed that a neuromuscular training program can not only reduce injury risk, but also improve performance. The encouraging findings are just published in British Journal of Sports Medicine. A link to the paper is contained in the website

But how does the recreational player or participant implement these programs? Here at SWSO we believe everyone, form top sportspeople to anyone wanting to stay active, deserve the best management the evidence suggests. Sadly, sports medicine cannot yet fully identify those people who will go on to have sports injuries.

Common misconceptions addressed

Injury prevention is more than just stretching. Often people come to our clinicians at SWSO feeling their injury was a result of being too "tight" and feeling guilty about not doing enough stretching. Although joint mobility is important, extraphysiological stretching is not helpful, and does little for preventing injury. In fact, while we're talking about it, contrary to popular belief research has shown that stretching doesn’t warm you up, prevent soreness or injury, enhance performance, or physically change muscles.


Men and women have similar injury rates. A last bastion of sexism, physical activity has commonly, and wrongly, been associated with higher injury rates in men presumably as a result of their higher average size and power. However,  male and female athletes have similar injury rates per hour of training.

Common among runners, is the feeling that pushing their speed increases the risk of injury (speed kills). At SWSO we are experienced at returning the recreational jogger or Team GB runner back to their training goal, and are happy that research suggests there is no link between speed and injury rate.

Here's five evidence-based approaches to limiting your injury risk...

Training “load”: not too much, not too little

There is robust research than risk of injury is linked to your training "load" -  how much energy you exert, which in turn relates to how hard and rapidly your tissues are challenged. Managing your training load - avoiding spikes of intense load or lulls of little load - can have profound benefit on remaining injury free. Where they do occur, for instance much needed travel, or illness, return to training a bit more cautiously for a while, slowly progressing back to your best weight/times/distance/repetitions

In 2016, the British Journal of Sports Medicine published a statement from the International Olympic Committee on load management (Soligard et al, 2016), suggesting:

  • We know form several sports that "load management" is important

  • Highs and lows of load can increase risk of both illness and injury 

  • Being in a middle 'Goldilocks' zone can prevent illness and injury and maintain stimulus to adapt (improve) to your training

  • Not everyone is vulnerable to high load, and elite athletes are less susceptible being relatively immune to the risks of overload

  • Rapid, large changes in load are much bigger risks than absolute load. Progressive increasing may even be protective

  • “Load” can also refer to non-sport stressors and “internal” loads. Psychology, for instance, probably does matter: anything from daily stresses to major emotional challenges, as well as those related to sport itself.

Copyright Yann Le Meur (@YLMSportScience).

Warm up

The best simple way to prevent injury is to warm up.67 Prepare for any intense activity by doing a similar activity less intensely. In other words, start slow! To warm up your tissues, you need metabolic activity: the heat causes physical changes in connective tissues that make them more pliable. Many more complex benefits arise from the stimulus of mild physiological stress. Mobilizations8 are an excellent warmup method, but really it’s just a matter of starting intense activities slowly.

Conversely, don’t overdo it. I’ve seen sports teams scrimmage for an hour before game time. I think that’s crazy: players go into competition not only warmed up but worn out. In competition, you can’t afford to give up any resources, and you only have so much juice in a day — no matter how fit you are. Athletes get hurt far more when they are fatigued than when they’re fresh.

And speaking of being tired …

Get enough sleep

As just mentioned, fatigue is a major risk factor for injury. Sleep deprivation is an almost universally underestimated problem. It’s a major factor in chronic pain.9 It impairs athletic performance, getting more sleep boosts boosts performance,10 and injury rates and recovery are probably affected too.11

People who actually do get enough sleep are extremely rare, and of course actual insomnia is a common problem. Insomnia treatment is not as hard as people think, and it’s a great indirect injury prevention tip, something that is definitely relevant to performance and injury risk — but has nothing to do with what you’re doing before, during, or after workouts.

Cultivate coordination

Many traumatic injuries are probably caused by minor glitches in coordinating fast, powerful movements — an inability to sense and respond to traumatic forces at just the right time, either from lack of developed skill and/or fatigue. Creating coordination takes practice at complex and specific tasks (working within genetic advantages and disadvantages). But you can make some progress simply challenging yourself with a wide variety of activity and sensations, and coordination can be improved.12 For instance, a particularly long-term study followed a men’s basketball team for six years, tracking their injury rates in response to “classic proprioceptive [coordination]13 exercises” — which seemed to clearly reduce ankle sprains, and possibly more.14

Balance is one of the most basic elements of coordination, and isn’t much of a concern for younger athletes, but it becomes one for older adults — and even fit older people fall just as much as their less active counterparts. Fortunately, if you practice tasks that require balance, your balance will usually get better (as long as there’s no medical issue). And better balance means fewer falls.

Play smart, not hard

Many injuries are caused by excessive and mis-directed effort! That might seem like a bit of a no brainer, but people need to learn this. I certainly did. It is one of the great lessons of martial arts.

I remember the day I learned this lesson in ultimate, watching an older woman play. She seemed unlikely to be competitive — she was simply too old, and a little overweight. In fact, it turned out that she was the best player on the field that day, entirely because she was clever. I particularly remember how little she ran. Although there were certainly bursts of intensity, her effort was precise and savvy, and time and again she got the better of other players with only a fraction of the sweat.

One particularly important way of playing smart is to relax into intense challenges …

Chill out, man

Adaptability prevents injury, and rigidity is the opposite of adaptability. Relaxation is more psychological than golf. To purge rigidity from your system, you will have to go on a journey of self-exploration: most tension is emotional and protective. You won’t be able to relax and be “comfortable in your own skin” until you know yourself better. Meanwhile, you’ll get more injury prevention mileage.

Part II: Collateral and re-injury prevention

Don’t underestimate the importance of prevention … after you’ve already been injured! After an injury, you should double-down on injury prevention.

The risk of re-injury and collateral injury is a significant factor in many cases of chronic pain. Minor re-injury can stop healing in its tracks, or at least slow it down. Injury “prevention” is therefore not just a way of keeping yourself from getting injured in the first place, but directly relevant to recovery from obvious injuries that have already happened. Double or triple your alertness and caution when limited by an injury, and bear in the mind the risk of minor re-injury turning an injury into a chronic pain problem.

We’re not just talking about the risk of a second “oh @#$!&” moment, dramatically re-injuring your injury, although that can certainly happen: re-injury routinely occurs in small, sneakier ways. And every minor re-injury impedes recovery. Minor re-injuries can be so subtle that you aren’t even really aware that it’s happening — all you know is, you aren’t getting better fast enough. (Although it’s awfully hard to tell how fast is fast enough.15)

Every minor re-injury impedes recovery.

Good health care professionals are always considering the “aggravating factors” of their patients’ pain problems. What factors in patients’ lives are making the problem worse? What keeps people from healing? What adds insult to injury? In a sense, almost every “aggravating factor” is basically just a kind a re-injury. You could call them “micro” re-injuries.16

When you are trying to figure out why your injury isn’t healing, do not neglect this important perspective: could you be slightly re-injuring yourself regularly? Have you actually removed from the equation any forces that might be, even just slightly, hurting you again … and again … and again … ?

Injury déja vu: the risk of real re-injury

Obviously, injured parts are vulnerable. A classic example of re-injury is the ankle sprain. The anterior talofibular ligament in the ankle is the most commonly injured structure in the body — and undoubtedly the most commonly re-injured structure in the body. Once it is damaged, it is never the same again. The chances of having a second ankle sprain are way higher than the chances of having the first. Almost exactly the same is true of muscle strains ("pulled" muscles), one of the most common athletic injuries.

People also often continue doing the very same activity that injured them in the first place. Like me, for instance: for years, I had almost annual compression sprains of my thumb joint — a “thumb jam,” well known to rugby players — from playing ultimate.17 I was at great risk for re-injury because I kept exposing myself to the same dangers, and the thumb was so damaged that virtually any impact constituted a real hazard, flaring it up again for weeks.

The need to avoid re-injury might seem too obvious to even bother writing about. But the failure to do so isn’t just an amateur mistake made by people too eager to get back to normal after an injury. For decades, patients have often been encouraged to do so by professionals, to the point of serious risk. It’s been in vogue in physical therapy for a long time now to “mobilize” injuries as quickly as possible — probably too much in vogue. In the zeal to get people on their feet again ASAP, serious sprains — which are worse than fractures in some ways — are almost never put in a cast. Turns out that’s a mistake. A 2009 experiment published in the Lancet presents clear evidence that a full cast for a severe ankle sprain is superior to the almost universal practice of using braces and tubular compression bandages. The editors write, “This elegant study highlights the need for trials to address common problems.”18 In other words, it has not been common sense to make re-injury avoidance a top priority.

In many contexts, getting active makes complete sense — but doing it prematurely can be a disaster. You definitely have to consider the risk of re-injury when you are trying to heal.

Collateral innjury: when you are hurt, you are at higher risk for completely different kinds of injuries

One of my clients had a shoulder injury — an ordinary thing, no big deal, just a little rotator cuff lesion, a tear in the muscles around the shoulder socket. Unfortunately, it impaired her ability to catch herself when she tripped and fell. It is amazing — shocking, really — just how hard you fall when you aren’t able to catch yourself. She fell face first onto a curb, and fractured her jaw and facial bones severely … a much more grievous injury than the original shoulder injury.

This kind of thing is surprisingly common. Patients with injuries need to be wide-awake alert to the fact that you are more vulnerable when you’ve been injured!

It is amazing — shocking, really — just how hard you fall when you aren’t able to catch yourself.

Being injured is an unfamiliar state, and it’s the “weirdness” of that state — the new sensations, and limitations — that gets people into trouble. An injury basically induces poor coordination (some more than others). Just like a child needs to be warned to look both ways before crossing the street, injured people — especially if they’ve never been injured seriously before — need to be warned to be much more alert to potential dangers.

Masking symptoms

A major mechanism for re-injury is the overconfidence given by masking symptoms with medication. Pain killers and anti-inflammatories, when they are effective, can make you feel less vulnerable than you actually are.19 And that’s when you’re going to go too far and hurt yourself … again. And you may not even realize it, both because of the masking and because it doesn’t have to be serious re-injury to really slow down recovery.

“Masking symptoms,” especially with medications, is often maligned because it doesn’t “treat the root cause.” But masking symptoms can be a good idea, and it should not be eschewed just because it doesn’t have a real healing effect … because there are very few real healing effects! “Healing” is mainly about removing impediments to natural recovery, like stress on tissues. It’s not dictated by some mythical power to speed healing, but by a strong understanding of the nature of the problem and what pisses it off and impedes recovery. Focus on facilitating natural recovery, and don’t knock a little “symptom relief” along the way.

But, if you decide you need some symptom relief, you must exercise more cautiously.